Contrarian

Is a person who goes "against the flow". In finance, it is often investors who trade instruments and make strategies that are the complete opposite of what the rest of the market does. It can often be investors who try to "time" a top or bottom, or see opportunities other investors do not.

An example of a contrarian investor is Nassim Nicholas Taleb. He describes his opposing strategies and thoughts in the book Black Swan:

https://www.amazon.com/Black-Swan-Improbable-Robustness-Fragility/dp/081297381X